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The purpose of this article is to evaluate effects of self-determination theory-based on-campus and off-campus prevention programs on smartphone overdependence among university students. This was a pre-posttest quasi-experimental study with a nonequivalent control group (CG). Seventy-eight students were recruited as participants. They were allowed to choose either an experiment group (EG) or a CG. On-campus smartphone overdependence prevention program was provided to participants in experimental group 1 (EG1), while on-campus program combined with off-campus prevention camp was provided to those in experimental group 2 (EG2). Instruments used in this study included a smartphone overdependence self-diagnosis scale, a basic psychological needs scale, and a self-regulation ability scale. Data collection was performed at baseline, immediately after intervention, at 1 month and 3 months after intervention. Data were analyzed using mixed analysis of covariance. Focus group interview was performed for qualitative evaluation. In this study, on-campus only program and combined intervention of on- and off-campus programs were both effective in maintaining and managing smartphone use. However, participants perceived that the off-campus program provided an opportunity to apply the theory learned in on-campus to the real world.
Yu, J. S., Ham, O. K., & Kwon, M. S. (2022). Effects of On-Campus and Off-Campus Smartphone Overdependence Prevention Programs Among University Students. Asian Nursing Research, 16(4), 215-223.